{随机段子}

锦绣良缘

中国催收业之战

????本文来自微信公众号:新金融洛书(FintechBook),作者:雷慢,封面:东方IC,
,“到底能不能联系欠款人的父母?”——前几日,笔者在一个200人规模的催收研讨会上,见识了这个争论的分歧鸿沟,争论的双方分别是学者和从业者,双方分别代表了“否”和“是”的结论。,
,造成这一巨大的分歧鸿沟的是当前催收业的惨烈现实:没有主管部门、没有专门政策立法、没有行业自律组织,5000多家催收公司、30多万从业者在“匿名”生存中耿耿于怀。,
,自唐宋时期讨债业兴起以来的近1000年,讨债之人的基本上被定义成一种“恶人”,他们与黑恶势力关系暧昧。催收业的现状,更像是在撑着平衡干走钢丝,平衡干的两端是道德底线与法律底线,任何一端失衡,即有可能面临跌落,而脚下是涉黑与违法的深渊。,
,01 罪恶之域,
,2016年,河南牧业经济学院大二学生郑某由于高利向网贷平台借款之后无力偿还,转而以贷还贷,在14家校园网贷平台“拆东墙补西墙”式负债近60万元,最终在软暴力催收下绝望跳楼。,
,站在互联网时代的高利贷高楼上,能看见这个惨剧的几个横切面,一个是“自杀式贷款”,一边是高息暴利放贷,而直接导火索是暴力催收。,
,5年以来,网贷行业和催收行业出现了显着的倒挂现象。当中国的P2P行业逐渐消亡至1000家存量机构时,个人信贷催收机构已崛起至5000多家,而它们却集体“匿名化”存在。这种“倒挂”更像是风险爆发与信用环境恶化的产物。,
,实际上,在互联网的外衣下,催收行业因多元化的技术手段“诱惑”,陷入更多道德与法律困境,如采集信息过程中容易触发的隐私侵犯,短信与电话催收中容易突破的“软暴力”边界。,
,据中国互联网金融协会业务一部主任沈一飞披露的数据显示,截至2019年5月底,中国互联网金融协会的“中国互联网金融举报信息平台”累计收到举报信息26万余条,举报主要内容聚焦不当催收、畸高利率、侵犯个人隐私等。仅2019年5月份,平台就收到6717条举报信息,其中不当催收、畸高利率、侵犯个人隐私问题占比高达89%。,
,这种负面信息的集中爆发,让催收行业几乎成为“恶”的代名词。,
,在新金融洛书看来,催收是一门道德底线低于法律红线的行业,它所引发的民众情绪与社会负面影响相比对金融体系的稳定性作用更为显性。这或许是它至今不被官方认可的原因之一。,
,02 催收平衡术,
,早在1995年,公安部、国家工商行政管理局印发了《关于禁止开办“讨债公司”的通知》,多年的催收行业一直“匿名化”发展。,
,20多年来,催收公司一般以商账管理、信息科技公司等名义开展业务。行业从业者早期几乎是“黑恶势力”的代名词,2013年以来,专业化队伍开始出现,律师、资产管理、金融等领域从业人员开始掘金催收业,行业出现了多元性和混杂性局面。,
,2019年4月,媒体报道了员工超2000人的“淳锋资产”涉嫌违规催收被深圳警方查封一事,而淳锋资产的两名自然人股东都是淳锋律师事务所的执业律师。,
,律师从事催收业,本是一件知法懂法、可规避风险的事情,为何却陷在违法的泥潭里?,
,实际上,催收业在当前大环境下,更像是一场催回率与合法催收的平衡术。要高催回率,需要非常手段,要合法,在当前规制环境下,催回率必然下降。这场平衡术下,无论资产方自建的催收团队,还是第三方催收,都有来自资产方的压力。,
,这种压力是大环境和行业特点决定的,2018年以来,资产端恶化正在成为一个事实,P2P和现金贷的逃废债不必说。某大型商业银行信用卡中心副总经理透露了一组数据:“平均每家信用卡机构每个季度新增的不良资产,去年一季度大概平均16.13亿,到了今年一季度将近翻了一番。”,
,而在催收端,某互联网金融公司资产保全部负责人道出了资产恶化背后的压力——若互联网金融公司一年贷款增加3倍,对催收电话座席的需求就高于3倍。,
,互联网金融公司的游戏规则简单粗暴:要保持大规模交易量,贷前不可避免地会在风控上降低标准,导致贷后客户质量会恶化,逾期率更高,催收团队规模的增长高于放贷规模的增长就自然而然了。,
,03 催收业正当性何在?,
,催收业当不当管,有一个问题最直白紧要:不管,暴力催收、涉黑涉恶将整个行业拖下水,劣币驱逐良币,行业玩完。,
,催收行业目前没有主管部门,没有专门的立法,让催收从业者惶恐不可终日。这使得债务催收公司的法律地位不明确,往左走一步,或是促进金融业健康发展的一种助力,而往右走一步,很有可能成为被扫黑除恶打掉的对象。,
,若要为催收争取一个名声,学者徐昕的《论私力救济》或能假借用来说明这种诉求的必要性。徐昕认为,在私力救济的框架下——如第三方催收,债务人存在合作的倾向。如果进入公力救济的司法程序,债务人的对抗性显然提高,债权人的目标就很难达成,成本更加高昂。,
,在《民法》上,有私力救济和公力救济的概念,私力救济是依靠自身的实力,通过实施自卫行为或者自助行为来救济自己被侵害的民事权利。法学学者梁慧星认为,国家欲进步,私力救济的范围要日益缩小,所以现在法律以禁止私力救济为原则,私力救济原则上是受到禁止的。,
,徐昕认为,在一个运作良好的社会,公力救济和私立救济,社会性救济应该保持两性互助关系,相互并存、衔接,配合和补充的多元化解决纷争机制和权力实现途径。,
,在发达国家,对催收业的严监管使得其在法律框架之下发挥了良好的效果,来自美国的数据显示:截至2018年底,美国有5115家催收机构,共催回652亿美元资金。,
,从历史经验来看,“讨债”这一行为自金融业出现以来就从来没消失过,一个饱受争议的行业,若不引导监管、束缚教正,在暴利的驱使下,或将走向更邪恶的地狱。这个行业劣币驱逐良币的现象将更为惨烈。,
,04 寻路中国,
,在世界各地,OECD(经济合作与发展组织)债务催收的平均催回率是77%,中国是30%,欠发达的柬埔寨则只有10%多。,
,高催回率的原因并非全因手段高明,而大都因为征信体系、失信惩戒等法律规制的完善性。在发达国家,良好的监管环境和政策约束,使催收业成为经济市场生态的一环。,
,背负了千年的恶名之后 ,中国催收行业的从业者正在希望从政策立法、监管确权、行业自律三方面为行业立名。但这条路在恶名之下的社会成见中太过艰难。,
,中国催收业的缺陷,不仅在于主管部门缺失、无专门立法、人人称恶。从上游层面来看,有信用体系漏洞的原因,从下游层面来看,有个人破产制度缺失的原因。,
,实际上,催收并不能从根本上解决债务违约问题,从制度层面来看,催收并不是个人债务问题的终结方式。,
,近十几年以来,我国部分学者从业者一直在呼吁出台《个人破产法》和《债务催收条例》。据天津金融监督管理局副局长武岳披露的调研数据显示,有85%以上的第三方催收公司认为需要出台《个人破产法》,86.8%的债务人认为有必要出《债务催收条例》。,
,在发达金融体系里,《个人破产法》是对个人债务的根本解决制度,它既对个人债务兜底,也对个人进行惩戒。没有《个人破产法》,个人债务违约将引发一连串的问题。,
,2016年,世界银行集团国际金融公司(IFC)和央行金融消费权益保护局联合发表了《中国债务催收问题研究》报告。该报告对我国催收行业提出了七大结论性建议,如今整个催收行业仍受这些建议的启迪。它们包括:,
,(一)明确债务催收行业行政主管机构;,(二)推动出台债务催收行业法律法规,促进该行业的阳光化、规范化;,(三)研究组建债务催收行业自律组织;,(四)出台债务催收行业自律公约;,(五)关注债务催收行业高新科技催收手段的发展和规范;,(六)研究出台个人破产或个人债务清理制度;,(七)优化信用环境,严厉打击逃废债行为。,
,时至今日,中国催收业还未达成其中任意一条,这也是中国催收业到今天仍是这般焦头烂额境地的原因。,
,本文来自微信公众号:新金融洛书(FintechBook),作者:雷慢,封面:东方IC

ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: xin jin rong luo shu FintechBook, zuo zhe: lei man, feng mian: dong fang IC,," dao di neng bu neng lian xi qian kuan ren de fu mu?" qian ji ri, bi zhe zai yi ge 200 ren gui mo de cui shou yan tao hui shang, jian shi le zhe ge zheng lun de fen qi hong gou, zheng lun de shuang fang fen bie shi xue zhe he cong ye zhe, shuang fang fen bie dai biao le" fou" he" shi" de jie lun.,, zao cheng zhe yi ju da de fen qi hong gou de shi dang qian cui shou ye de can lie xian shi: mei you zhu guan bu men mei you zhuan men zheng ce li fa mei you hang ye zi lv zu zhi, 5000 duo jia cui shou gong si 30 duo wan cong ye zhe zai" ni ming" sheng cun zhong geng geng yu huai.,, zi tang song shi qi tao zhai ye xing qi yi lai de jin 1000 nian, tao zhai zhi ren de ji ben shang bei ding yi cheng yi zhong" e ren", ta men yu hei e shi li guan xi ai mei. cui shou ye de xian zhuang, geng xiang shi zai cheng zhe ping heng gan zou gang si, ping heng gan de liang duan shi dao de di xian yu fa lv di xian, ren he yi duan shi heng, ji you ke neng mian lin die luo, er jiao xia shi she hei yu wei fa de shen yuan.,, 01 zui e zhi yu,, 2016 nian, he nan mu ye jing ji xue yuan da er xue sheng zheng mou you yu gao li xiang wang dai ping tai jie kuan zhi hou wu li chang huan, zhuan er yi dai huan dai, zai 14 jia xiao yuan wang dai ping tai" chai dong qiang bu xi qiang" shi fu zhai jin 60 wan yuan, zui zhong zai ruan bao li cui shou xia jue wang tiao lou.,, zhan zai hu lian wang shi dai de gao li dai gao lou shang, neng kan jian zhe ge can ju de ji ge heng qie mian, yi ge shi" zi sha shi dai kuan", yi bian shi gao xi bao li fang dai, er zhi jie dao huo suo shi bao li cui shou.,, 5 nian yi lai, wang dai hang ye he cui shou hang ye chu xian le xian zhu de dao gua xian xiang. dang zhong guo de P2P hang ye zhu jian xiao wang zhi 1000 jia cun liang ji gou shi, ge ren xin dai cui shou ji gou yi jue qi zhi 5000 duo jia, er ta men que ji ti" ni ming hua" cun zai. zhe zhong" dao gua" geng xiang shi feng xian bao fa yu xin yong huan jing e hua de chan wu.,, shi ji shang, zai hu lian wang de wai yi xia, cui shou hang ye yin duo yuan hua de ji shu shou duan" you huo", xian ru geng duo dao de yu fa lv kun jing, ru cai ji xin xi guo cheng zhong rong yi chu fa de yin si qin fan, duan xin yu dian hua cui shou zhong rong yi tu po di" ruan bao li" bian jie.,, ju zhong guo hu lian wang jin rong xie hui ye wu yi bu zhu ren shen yi fei pi lu de shu ju xian shi, jie zhi 2019 nian 5 yue di, zhong guo hu lian wang jin rong xie hui de" zhong guo hu lian wang jin rong ju bao xin xi ping tai" lei ji shou dao ju bao xin xi 26 wan yu tiao, ju bao zhu yao nei rong ju jiao bu dang cui shou ji gao li lv qin fan ge ren yin si deng. jin 2019 nian 5 yue fen, ping tai jiu shou dao 6717 tiao ju bao xin xi, qi zhong bu dang cui shou ji gao li lv qin fan ge ren yin si wen ti zhan bi gao da 89.,, zhe zhong fu mian xin xi de ji zhong bao fa, rang cui shou hang ye ji hu cheng wei" e" de dai ming 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wan.,, cui shou hang ye mu qian mei you zhu guan bu men, mei you zhuan men de li fa, rang cui shou cong ye zhe huang kong bu ke zhong ri. zhe shi de zhai wu cui shou gong si de fa lv di wei bu ming que, wang zuo zou yi bu, huo shi cu jin jin rong ye jian kang fa zhan de yi zhong zhu li, er wang you zou yi bu, hen you ke neng cheng wei bei sao hei chu e da diao de dui xiang.,, ruo yao wei cui shou zheng qu yi ge ming sheng, xue zhe xu xin de lun si li jiu ji huo neng jia jie yong lai shuo ming zhe zhong su qiu de bi yao xing. xu xin ren wei, zai si li jiu ji de kuang jia xia ru di san fang cui shou, zhai wu ren cun zai he zuo de qing xiang. ru guo jin ru gong li jiu ji de si fa cheng xu, zhai wu ren de dui kang xing xian ran ti gao, zhai quan ren de mu biao jiu hen nan da cheng, cheng ben geng jia gao ang.,, zai min fa shang, you si li jiu ji he gong li jiu ji de gai nian, si li jiu ji shi yi kao zi shen de shi li, tong guo shi shi zi wei xing wei huo zhe zi zhu xing wei lai jiu ji zi ji bei qin hai de min shi quan li. fa xue xue zhe liang hui xing ren wei, guo jia yu jin bu, si li jiu ji de fan wei yao ri yi suo xiao, suo yi xian zai fa lv yi jin zhi si li jiu ji wei yuan ze, si li jiu ji yuan ze shang shi shou dao jin zhi de.,, xu xin ren wei, zai yi ge yun zuo liang hao de she hui, gong li jiu ji he si li jiu ji, she hui xing jiu ji ying gai bao chi liang xing hu zhu guan xi, xiang hu bing cun xian jie, pei he he bu chong de duo yuan hua jie jue fen zheng ji zhi he quan li shi xian tu jing.,, zai fa da guo jia, dui cui shou ye de yan jian guan shi de qi zai fa lv kuang jia zhi xia fa hui le liang hao de xiao guo, lai zi mei guo de shu ju xian shi: jie zhi 2018 nian di, mei guo you 5115 jia cui shou ji gou, gong cui hui 652 yi mei yuan zi jin.,, cong li shi jing yan lai kan," tao zhai" zhe yi xing wei zi jin rong ye chu xian yi lai jiu cong lai mei xiao shi guo, yi ge bao shou zheng yi de hang ye, ruo bu yin dao jian guan shu fu jiao zheng, zai bao li de qu shi xia, huo jiang zou xiang geng xie e de di yu. zhe ge hang ye lie bi qu zhu liang bi de xian xiang jiang geng wei can lie.,, 04 xun lu zhong guo,, zai shi jie ge di, OECD jing ji he zuo yu fa zhan zu zhi zhai wu cui shou de ping jun cui hui lv shi 77, zhong guo shi 30, qian fa da de jian pu zhai ze zhi you 10 duo.,, gao cui hui lv de yuan yin bing fei quan yin shou duan gao ming, er da du yin wei zheng xin ti xi shi xin cheng jie deng fa lv gui zhi de wan shan xing. zai fa da guo jia, liang hao de jian guan huan jing he zheng ce yue shu, shi cui shou ye cheng wei jing ji shi chang sheng tai de yi huan.,, bei fu le qian nian de e ming zhi hou , zhong guo cui shou hang ye de cong ye zhe zheng zai xi wang cong zheng ce li fa jian guan que quan hang ye zi lv san fang mian wei hang ye li ming. dan zhe tiao lu zai e ming zhi xia de she hui cheng jian zhong tai guo jian nan.,, zhong guo cui shou ye de que xian, bu jin zai yu zhu guan bu men que shi wu zhuan men li fa ren ren cheng e. cong shang you ceng mian lai kan, you xin yong ti xi lou dong de yuan yin, cong xia you ceng mian lai kan, you ge ren po chan zhi du que shi de yuan yin.,, shi ji shang, cui shou bing bu neng cong gen ben shang jie jue zhai wu wei yue wen ti, cong zhi du ceng mian lai kan, cui shou bing bu shi ge ren zhai wu wen ti de zhong jie fang shi.,, jin shi ji nian yi lai, wo guo bu fen xue zhe cong ye zhe yi zhi zai hu yu chu tai ge ren po chan fa he zhai wu cui shou tiao li. ju tian jin jin rong jian du guan li ju fu ju chang wu yue pi lu de diao yan shu ju xian shi, you 85 yi shang de di san fang cui shou gong si ren wei xu yao chu tai ge ren po chan fa, 86. 8 de zhai wu ren ren wei you bi yao chu zhai wu cui shou tiao li.,, zai fa da jin rong ti xi li, ge ren po chan fa shi dui ge ren zhai wu de gen ben jie jue zhi du, ta ji dui ge ren zhai wu dou di, ye dui ge ren jin xing cheng jie. mei you ge ren po chan fa, ge ren zhai wu wei yue jiang yin fa yi lian chuan de wen ti.,, 2016 nian, shi jie yin hang ji tuan guo ji jin rong gong si IFC he yang hang jin rong xiao fei quan yi bao hu ju lian he fa biao le zhong guo zhai wu cui shou wen ti yan jiu bao gao. gai bao gao dui wo guo cui shou hang ye ti chu le qi da jie lun xing jian yi, ru jin zheng ge cui shou hang ye reng shou zhei xie jian yi de qi di. ta men bao kuo:,, yi ming que zhai wu cui shou hang ye xing zheng zhu guan ji gou, er tui dong chu tai zhai wu cui shou hang ye fa lv fa gui, cu jin gai hang ye de yang guang hua gui fan hua, san yan jiu zu jian zhai wu cui shou hang ye zi lv zu zhi, si chu tai zhai wu cui shou hang ye zi lv gong yue, wu guan zhu zhai wu cui shou hang ye gao xin ke ji cui shou shou duan de fa zhan he gui fan, liu yan jiu chu tai ge ren po chan huo ge ren zhai wu qing li zhi du, qi you hua xin yong huan jing, yan li da ji tao fei zhai xing wei.,, shi zhi jin ri, zhong guo cui shou ye hai wei da cheng qi zhong ren yi yi tiao, zhe ye shi zhong guo cui shou ye dao jin tian reng shi zhe ban jiao tou lan e jing di de yuan yin.,, ben wen lai zi wei xin gong zhong hao: xin jin rong luo shu FintechBook, zuo zhe: lei man, feng mian: dong fang IC

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责任编辑:孙剑嵩

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